N20 timing chain issue

ok I’m getting a lot of questions about the N20 timing chain noise and replacement,,,,here are 2 short audio clips,,,,you can here a high pitched whine in both videos. one video is at 3000rpms,,,,and the other is reving the engine up and down,,,I sent both videos to BMW to get approval on the timing chain repairs.image Here I removed the valve cover and inspected from the top of the engine for any visual problem,,,I don’t know if you can see it in the picture,,,,on top of the chain you can see shiney marks,,,that is an indication the chain is rubbing on something,,,,those marks are not normally there.image Here the old timing chain and guide reins,,,the guide rails were broken.image Here you can see where they broke,,,,the two rails would normally be snapped together.image Here the old  oil pump timing chain module,,,,this comes complete as you see it,,,,did not find anything wrong with this,,,but BMW wants us to replace it at the same time as the timing chain.image Here are the new timing chain guides and rails,,,the new ones are white in color and made of a better plastic we hope,,,,lol.image This is the new oil pump timing chain module complete just bolt in,,,,this job is not one of the best to do,,,,this was on a X3 so I had to deal with the front axles and front differential,,,,,this job only pays about 9.5 hours,,,so you pretty much have one day to complete the job to make any money.,,,I hope this helps some of you guys about the timing chain issues.

This entry was posted in Uncategorized and tagged , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

841 Responses to N20 timing chain issue

  1. Chris says:

    I’ve seen very little yet conflicting info on 4-series models. F32’s weren’t mentioned in the initial TSB for this issue, but are included on the 7/70k warranty list. So are 2014 428i’s assumed to have the newer parts without this issue?

    Like

  2. Sean says:

    Hi Andreas, could you please give this engine a quick listen and let me know if you think it sounds like the timing chain issue? It’s a 2014 328i. Thank you so much!!

    Like

    • Thanks for the video,,,yes that the timing chain whine starting

      Like

      • Sean says:

        Thanks Andreas! So this is still not too bad, right? Car has 50K miles on it and I’m hoping to give it another 5K miles before going to a dealership…

        Like

      • It really hard to say without me hearing it in person,

        Like

      • concerned says:

        It is crazy that BMW does not at least have a custom borescope + pinhole camera tool to access through oil filler opening to inspect the plastic snap-on joint(that breaks first). Hopefully BMWNA comes to their senses and issue a recall to install improved metal guard rails(with plastic glide strips), or offer 20 years/200k mile extended limited warranty on N20/N26 timing chain!!! Some friends now have E39/E46 inline 6 with 200k-250k, no timing chain stretches on those!!!

        Like

      • Yes I know we never had a problem with the 6 cylinder cars,,,,when BMW made a 4 cylinder engine again we have problems

        Like

  3. concerned says:

    Hi Andres, is there a public website to download the SIB related to F30 issues? E.g. I read from another forum that the low pressure fuel pump(in-tank) of F30 can fail too, and there is a SI B01 07 18 for it, can you post that SI B01 07 18 too? Thanks!

    Like

  4. Sushant Sood says:

    Hi Andreas, Thanks for your post. With BMW ignoring us you are doing a great help.
    I bought a used 2015 320i (make Nov 2014) in Canada from one of the biggest and trusted dealers a month ago with 82k kms and have since not been able to sleep after reading about the timing chain time bomb (warranty out and BMW not extending), but I have driven it about about 1000km since the purchase without any issues. With your guide I was able to make videos and click some pictures of the timing chain from the oil cap. It would be great if could help me with the diagnosis.


    MANY THANKS once again!!

    Like

    • Thanks for the video,,,I do here a slight whine noise,,,the N20,N26 both have a slight whine which is normal,,,,I’m sorry to say it’s hard to tell from the video,,,,I would talk to the dealership about your concerns and have it checked out and see what they have to say,,,then you have records in case something does happen.

      Liked by 1 person

  5. Sushant Sood says:

    Found these great 2 videos to make a simple check (disclaimer: sharing as found, credits to the creator).


    Like

    • George says:

      Damn, just checked mine (2013 F10 with 110k km/ 68.3k miles) and it’s like the first video…
      Not sure that we have the same type of warranty in Canada….

      Liked by 1 person

      • Yea I think Canada warranty is different,,,,I hope it works out for you.

        Like

      • George says:

        Got the confirmation that in Canada we have the same warranty, 7 years, 112600km.
        Now…don;t know how to ask for the change as after running for few minutes, the chain is tight.

        Like

      • The chain will tighten the second you start the car,,,you need to see if you have a whining noise coming from the engine area,,,,and it should get loader when you rev the engine.,,and you can ask the dealership to inspect the timing chain due to the issues of the timing chain to break

        Like

      • Sushant Sood says:

        Hey George, which dealership? I bought my used 2015 320i (built November 2014) last year, it was originally bought from Budds Oakville.

        Like

      • George says:

        BMW Sherbrooke. Already had the valve cover replaced under CPO warranty and I am trying now to get this looked into as I am 2k km away from the 112k 🙂

        Like

      • George says:

        Something seems weird between 3 to 4k rpm:

        Does it sound like the chain problem? Will visit my dealer tomorrow as I am extremely close to the 112k km limit.
        It’s a 2013, build in January, sold in July.

        Like

      • Thanks for the video,,,yes that is a strange sound,,,I have no idea what it could be,,,let me know what the dealer says

        Like

      • George says:

        Appointment for Tuesday morning. Complained about the sound and told them to check the TC. If the TC starts to develop the issue, can the gas mileage get worst?

        Like

      • George says:

        Adding this video with the engine cold after only 6h of sitting.
        The rail is moving a lot and I would be able to pull the chain off without the top plastic rail part:

        I am curious how the dealer will check it.

        Liked by 1 person

      • Thanks for the video,,,The dealer can run a timing chain test,,,if that’s doesn’t work the valve cover might have to come off to inspect the timing chain rail.

        Liked by 1 person

      • George says:

        The more I listen the more I don’t hear it :))

        I blame it on the f10’s insonorisation
        Will see what the dealer has to say about the rail moving as well. Hopefully they’ll take in consideration the fact is made prior 03/2013.

        Like

      • Thanks for the video,,,it hard to tell from inside the car,,,,all the N20 and N26 make a little whine noise from factory,,,,we just have to see how much more the whine is on your engine.,,,can we hear it from the engine with the hood open

        Like

    • George says:

      And the last one before the dealer verdict: https://youtu.be/3glAP2Drz1o
      Hope to have an answer tomorrow. If it’s just in my head at least I hope it won’t cost an arm and a leg to verify it 🙂

      Like

      • Thanks for the video,,,that’s a timing chain whine.

        Like

      • George says:

        Thank you! That would be awesome to have it changed with 1500km before the end of the warranty here in Canada.
        And for the f10 owners it’s very difficult to notice the sound due to soundproofing. I’m guessing it’s one of the reasons so many are discovered too late.

        Liked by 1 person

      • George says:

        My dealer just called. They are sure it’s not the TC, but the turbo…Kind of strange as bad turbo sound it’s different. They even said that there are codes for it, while I know that there is no error code on the car. Any advice on it?

        Like

      • George says:

        Just came back from the dealer. The note on the file is outrageous.
        I specified that there is a whine ABOVE 2500 rpm and it gets worst with rpm increase.
        Their diagnostic: turbo noise AT 2500 and that noise is going away if vacuum line is removed. And they also observed some slight marks on the impeller, recommending the turbo change (5000 CAD). No oil leak, no movement, no error codes.
        They have not even tried to reproduce the noise above 2500 rpm, even if they told me about the service bulletin.
        And best part…I was charged 221$ for not even checking the reported problem.
        Will call back tomorrow morning and ask for the service manager and depending on his answer will contact BMW Canada.
        Btw, the dealer is BMW Laval

        Like

      • This really sucks,,,I hate when the dealership pulls this shit,,,they go after something else instead of the real problem and what the customer requested,,,this is the problem with the new young BMW tech that just got out of school and don’t know how to diagnose a problem or a customer complaint,,,I wish I could do more to help.

        Like

      • George says:

        Have talked with the service adviser and asked for explanations why they did not followed the SIB and he tried to tell me that there is no SIB. He tried to tell me that they have rev’d up the engine and that there is no sound while they had to use a Stethoscope to tell that there is a turbo issue…
        Have sent them the videos and based on their answer will contact BMW Canada.
        Here is the today’s video with the phone in front of the engine, next to the oil cooler:

        Will keep you posted.

        Like

      • George says:

        Saga continues….
        With the videos sent to the dealer, they are insisting they cannot do anything as the sound is from the turbo at “around 2500 rpm” and it goes away when the vacuum line is disconnected. I have told them that my complaint is above that rpm in a different position.
        Also they say that there is no service bulletin for Canada, just the warranty extension. In other words, they verify is as they please….
        They insist they can look again at it only if we start by replacing the turbo (on my expense) first!
        Have asked for the service manager to contact me, if not will go to BMW Canada or to a better dealer, but not found on paying diagnostics at all dealers in my area…

        Like

      • George says:

        Still no news from the dealer…
        Is it safe to remove the 2 vacuum lines from the inlet to simulate what they did? Just want to make another video with this scenario.

        Like

      • Yes you can remove the 2 vacuum lines and run the engine

        Like

      • George says:

        Removed the top one only (could not remove the lower one). Still, the vacuum should be interrupted.
        As expected, the sound is still there:

        Sent the video to the dealer, but not expecting much cooperation…

        Like

      • George says:

        The service manager discussion was worst than the initial one.
        He stated that if there is no slack they don’t do anything and they know how to verify it without following service bulletins…
        When I told him about the vacuum line removed he was just passive aggressive and cut the call short. Will go on Monday to make the test with them and take it from there.
        My worry is if I call BMW Canada they might force me to change the turbo first based on this report so I’ll schedule a ~100 miles to the place I bought the car from for testing (BMW Sherbrooke) as they always had a very professional approach. I would gladly pay them a second verification.

        Like

      • I’m sorry this is so difficult,,,,I wish some of these dealerships would just step up and perform the repairs,,,good luck

        Like

      • George says:

        Went again to the dealer and the senior tech came to the car. Have rev’d it and pointed the noise. he said is normal. Went to a test drive even if I have explained we won’t hear much. That’s exactly how it ended…not TC issue and if there will be i will hear it every time I’ll accelerate..
        At least he didn’t blame it on the turbo…
        At this point either I’m going to another dealer which will mean another expense….or I’ll get rid of it just because of the support experience.

        Like

      • OLIVER KASSEM says:

        I am really afraid that BMW has made an irreparable mistake in the way they are handling this chain problem. We were ready to purchase a new X3 M but have decided to postpone the purchase. If it turns out to be true that they knew that the chain was bad and continued to install, it is unforgivable in my mind.

        Like

      • Smart idea,,,,maybe that’s why BMW now makes the new B engines

        Like

      • Hopefully you can find a dealership that will help you,,,good luck

        Like

  6. Mike says:

    Hi thanks for your blog and the work you do. I’m worried my N20 is starting the same whine (currently 60K miles) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U3PFVUELwrc does it sound that way?

    Liked by 1 person

  7. Johnny Weaver says:

    Dumb question. Check engine light popped on. Not due for service. The onboard vehicle check is still green and good. Timing chain replaced 10k miles ago. No noise just the light. The only thing, maybe, it sat on an incline over the weekend. Any ideas and how to reset without a reader?

    Like

  8. Oilpumpguy says:

    Hello, do you know what happens if the oil pump chain fails? Because my dealer said that its quite common that oil pump chain is making the noice. They said that they had a lot of n20 motors with that changed. My noice is not that bad but i will keep listening. My fear is that the pump will fail, but will the whole motor fail then? or if you just turn off the motor right away. Im not sure, but i think that will be a different think than the timing chain.

    Like

    • If the oil pump fails,,,in BMW theory there is a oil pressure sensor which should tell the DME to shut the engine off so it won’t cause anymore damage,,,that’s if everything works like it should.

      Like

  9. Sriram Ramesh says:

    2013 BMW X3 engine died on the highway three days ago. 95k miles on the car. Oil pressure warning came up and the engine just died. I had to have it towed to the BMW dealership and they found the timing chain broken. Engine needs to be replaced. I have extended warranty until 2021/106000 miles. I am hoping the warranty company would approve the claim. How can I be prepared?

    Like

    • You should be ok,,,,if your extended warranty is any good you should be ok.,,,,let us know what happens

      Like

    • concerned says:

      95k is not really high-mileage …. Was there any high whining sound from the engine, and is there any check-engine-light? Virtually all extended warranty has a cap on the lifetime payment, usually limited to FMV, and your 2013 X3 very likely is not worth more than the cot of engine replacement at dealer. :[

      Like

  10. Alex says:

    2014 F30 328i (with M-sport package, without M-sport Brakes) Front Brake Caliper Bracket Bolts:
    Planning on changing the front brake rotors, to do so I have to remove two hex 18mm caliper bracket bolts (Part Number 34116772117, specifications = M12X1.5). BMW manual recommends changing the bolts as well, looking for them online, they are no longer available. Instead the bolts are “Torx screw with washer” (Part Number 34106864424). Could someone verify this change and why was this done, any advantages/disadvantages of the hex bolt? Can I just use the old bolts instead. Btw the rears bolts are still the same?

    Link (Part 3):
    https://www.realoem.com/bmw/enUS/showparts?id=3A53-USA-10-2013-F30-BMW-328i&diagId=34_1968

    Thanks in advance

    Like

  11. Pingback: Replacing the BMW N20 timing: diagnostics and recommendations | Engine Finder Motor Spares

  12. stempoid says:

    How bad is this one?

    Like

  13. joe266 says:

    Hi, 2 years ago I had trouble with that noise as well, see my previous comments. Now I have another 30k km on the counter and the issue didn’t appear. Crossing fingers.

    Like

  14. Thiago Arnold Villarroel Gamboa says:

    Hi guys. My name is thiago. I’m for brazil. And my bmw 320i 2013 start to makin that noise….the car is with 94000km dont know well how is in miles….
    The same noise in the last video..
    But star making that noise….like 3 months ago
    I have trouble finding a mechanical assitance outside the BMW.
    What parts is to be changed?

    . Can you help me?

    Like

  15. Hicham says:

    Hi do u have any videos how to remove front axles and differential to get to the oil pump chain broke on it so I have to do timming chain as well thanks

    Like

  16. Jason says:

    Hi – I have a 2015 BMW X1. I recently started reading about the timing chain and how the plastic guides can break. I also read that they changed the design of the timing chain on the 2015 models, but only those produced after 1/2015. I just checked and mine was produced in early 2014. Is there a way to tell if I have the new or old chain? Or is it strictly by production date?

    Thanks
    Jason

    Like

  17. vinodrk1st says:

    I tried running a timing chain test using ista. It failed 1000rpm saying timing chain is under tensioned. Whenever I drive the car with some sudden n hard stop, I get p1339 warning the next dtime I start the car. I changed the position sensor n still get the code.
    When I put the car in drive mode the engine tilts by 2 to 3 degrees left.
    Thankyou for all the help you are doing in this site…amazing job.

    Like

  18. vinodrk1st says:

    The error code on ISTA is 130F20 exhaust camshaft offset angle to crankshaft outside tolerance(vanos solenoid valve, exhaust)

    Like

    • This is a hard one,,,you could have a issue with the vanos unit or a problem with the timing chain.

      Like

      • vinodrk1st says:

        I see an undervoltage error on terminal 5 logged Everytime before I got the 130f20 error logged.

        I physically checked the timing chain from the oilcap & it is pretty tight & intact. Could this under voltage have triggered the 130f20 camshaft error?

        Like

      • I think you mean terminal 15,,,yes undervoltage fault can cause a lot of different problems because they are not getting enough voltage to operate correctly

        Like

      • vinodrk1st says:

        How do I diagnose & fix the undervoltage issue on terminal 15.

        Like

      • This under voltage fault could be due to anything,,,,you could could have a weak battery,,,,you could have left the key on to long causing the battery voltage to go low,,,,I would need a lot more information on why this fault is there,,,you could also be chasing your tail for nothing

        Like

  19. Brian says:

    I just purchased a 2013 328i Xdrive M-sport with the N26 SULEV motor. The engine currently has 63,000 miles on it. After stumbling onto the timing chain issue, I thought I would do a visual inspection of my chain. I found a lot of side-to-side play in the chain. My question is….is the timing chain covered under warranty because it is a SULEV engine, and if it is covered, where can I find the actual warranty proof to take with me to the BMW dealership?

    Thanks!

    Like

  20. bmwx6site says:

    Thanks .i dropped the x6 5.0 turno off at dealer yestursay to see what they say.its smoking from the exhaust along with dynamic drive malfunction and oil change service light on.Help

    Like

    • The smoking is probably valve stem seals which is a common issue on that engine,,,,let’s see what they say.

      Like

      • bmwx6site says:

        Ok.so BMW tginks its the seals along with other turbo leaks.the car is bot in warranty with 75kmiles. Im not sure if ill fix or get rid of it.I love it.Any info on the lawsuit regarding the N63 engines

        Like

      • There are some lawsuits and some extended warranty on N63 for oil leaks and oil burning on some years and models only,,,you need to go to your dealership and see if your car is covered for oil burning and oil leaks.

        Like

  21. kr4va says:

    2016 320 4 cycl produced 9/15.. i heard the NEW timing chain guides are WHITE mine are BROWN — any thoughts on that

    Like

  22. kr4va says:

    https://bmwtechnician.wordpress.com/ Wow my chain looks darn near like the first video just after shutdown at 18k. Using a modified paint can opener the chain lifted …. freaking perplexed for lack of a better word… that tensioner must be a weak one—-BUMP

    Like

  23. kr4va says:

    a day later i shut off the engine and checked the chain and i could not be moved,, same 3 hours later so why the diff??? yesterday was loose –cam position / tensioner ?

    Like

  24. Ken says:

    Is movement on this timing chain and guide rail normal?

    Like

    • The movement on the chain depends on how long the engine has been shut off,,,,,if this is the next morning then this is normal,,,,if you just shut off the engine then this is not normal because the hydraulic chain tensioner looses tension the longer the engine is shut off,,,now the movement on the rail I did not like,,,the rail should be tighter

      Like

      • Ken says:

        What causes the rail to be so loose? Is the car still driveable? Thanks in advance.

        Like

      • vinodrk1st says:

        What are the options to get the guides & chain fixed at better pricing instead of BMW’s costly pricing? I don’t see BMW’s pricing fair enough.

        Like

      • I hate to say it but it’s always been that way,,,Mercedes,Porsche etc all expense to fix and up keep,,,,you could find a good independent BMW repair shop

        Like

      • The rail is in two piece,,,it’s like a clam shell they both lock into each other,,,the plastic might be coming apart it’s hard to tell with out taking the valve cover off and checking it out

        Like

  25. Cäser says:

    Hi Guys,
    I have already changed the Oilpump and the Chain of the Oilpump.
    Actualy I have some sorring noise between 2000-3000rpm.
    Best to hear in my video at 00:30minute.

    Like

  26. Sidney Porter says:

    This is horrible, my 2013 328ix has same issue starting, I don’t like the fact they are avoiding the warranty claim by limiting to 112,000kms.

    Like

  27. Sidney Porter says:

    Here is my engine sound… to me it sounds like it is not as bad as others, but I can tell the difference from 1 year ago, and it’s getting worse.

    What do you think?

    Like

  28. calvin chan says:

    Hi . do you know the timing chain issue will include my 420i n20 engine manufactured in july 2014 ?
    thanks a lot !
    calvin

    Like

  29. kr4va says:

    George,, my 9/15 production car does the same thing at (times).. one day its lose and the next its tight.. also my plastic rail moves like yours as well

    Like

  30. Sidney Porter says:

    Hi BMW Technician,
    Finally, here is a link to my engine which I believe is starting to make the noise. Revving at 3000rpm, it almost sounds like turbo whine… but it’s not.
    Not extremely bad, but I believe it is getting worse. Also, shiny markings on timing chain…

    Like

  31. George says:

    Hi, thanks for all you do for us. I have a 2014 F34 – how does this sound.

    Like

  32. Giorgio says:

    Hi guys, I posted a comment but it has not been listed yet. How long does it usually take to appear?

    Liked by 1 person

  33. bill says:

    can you tell me if my 2013 320i is covered by the timing chain ELW? and do you also have any advice as to how i can get my turbo oil feed line replaced by BMW (i’m having the smoke on cold start up issue)? car has 60,500mls. in service date of 5/13.

    i really appreciate this forum. thanks in advance.
    -bill

    Like

    • I’m sorry your car is not covered for the turbo oil feed line,,,the timing chain you will have to ask the dealership for help on that.

      Like

      • bill says:

        have you ever heard of other cars NOT covered, but having the same engine (N20) with a build date exactly in line with other cars with the N20 (328i for example) somehow being included/covered? very confused why a 2013 320i exhibiting cold start up smoke would be excluded.

        and if my car is covered by the timing chain ELW (which i just learned it is), is the best course of action to pay the $139 diagnosis fee to my dealer and have them run their test? if yes, is that test comes back negative, should i ask to get help with any replacement costs since the chain is a known week point in this car?

        Like

      • Yes I would ask for any help,,,yes I have heard of other car not covered,,,,a lot doesn’t make any sense on which car and years are covered

        Like

  34. bill says:

    and lastly, since my cost to change the oil feed lines is around $900 at an indy, do you know if the oil lines are covered under an extended warranty? i may opt to go that route (extended warranty) to help cover any of the other known issues with my MY N20, which i only learned AFTER buying the car 3 weeks ago. have owned 10 BMW’s over the past 15 years and have never experienced such a trouble-prone engine.

    Like

  35. Sidney Porter says:

    BEING FIXED UNDER WARRANTY! Thanks BMW Technician! Just visited my dealership. They were very reluctant to do anything, but were willing to listen. I explained this is the beginning of an issue. Service techs. said they don’t hear anything. I sat with Service Manager in the car and rev’d the car up 2000-3000rpms, then they agreed they hear a slight whining, but said it’s not so bad. I said, right, but it’s getting worse and I don’t want to visit after warranty with a blown engine to fix BMW’s problems.
    Right now they are fixing the timing chains, sprockets, etc. under warranty.
    Thank You BMW Technician!
    Everyone out there, please check your vehicles…. listen to them. BMW and their Service Advisors know this is a problem which WILL happen, they admitted to me the N20 has these issues and it’s only a matter of time. Unfortunately it will come up down the road for many people, leaving you with an expensive repair bill for thousands. Not right, BMW shame on you for not extending the warranty properly and for choosing bad materials in the first place!

    Like

  36. bill says:

    not sure if my video posted or not…..so here’s my 2013 320i. hear anything suspect:

    Like

    • bill says:

      UPDATE: dealer just called and is replacing the timing chain! i also am working through BMW NA customer relations to try and get assistance on the oil feed line replacement (tech confirmed the older/non-check valve lines were installed currently) since i’ll save some on labor if the job is done now (during timing chain replacement). dealer quote was $1280 to do now, vs $1700 to do later. i’ll keep everyone posted.

      Like

  37. George, Sorry for my poor video. It was my daughter recording.
    Yes, that’s how it sounds! Actually, I think your engine sounds a bit more whining than mine did. The revs at 2000-3000 you hear the whine much more. A bit hard to listen with the Direct Injection making all the noise, but you can hear the issue. Don’t give up at the first dealer either., and perhaps make an appointment with manager (that’s what I did), they have more leverage it seems in accepting/denying these issues in my opinion.
    Please let us know how it turns out.

    Like

  38. Sidney Porter says:

    BMW Technician, perhaps you should comment on George’s video? Sorry, I was overly excited to help.

    Like

  39. John says:

    Hi, I have a 2013 X3 28i which was produced in 2013/01 I recorded a video of the engine noise around 3000 RPM and there is a whining noise is this timing chain noise? Currently 94K miles on the engine.

    Thanks

    Videos: https://youtu.be/MDlssMZWcgw

    Like

  40. vinnie says:

    For my 2013 X3, we have had towed into dealer for multiple BMW service issues with Powertrain Failure. Starting around 50,000 miles and now with recent tow (85,000) the dealer service technician says the engine needs replacing. Does anyone know what the signs of trouble / failure are for the timing chain which ultimated damages the engine ? With multiple “limp” mode problems, why didn’t the dealer technician warn us of the timing chain limited warranty ? If we had it in multiple times prior to the 70,000 mile / 7 yr extension , isn’t BMW liable for the repair or are they complicit in causing the eventual engine failure ?

    Like

    • What happens the timing chain and timing chain rail come apart and cause internal damage,,,yes since you were at the dealership before the 70k for Powertrain failure you might have some proof that there was a problem with the timing chain and that they didn’t fix it correctly the first time.

      Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.